Just recently in a Sunday morning Bible class, the question was raised about the doctrine of consubstantiation. Distinct from transubstantiation, which is the Roman Catholic teaching that the bread and the wine “turn into” Christ’s body and blood, the teaching of consubstantiation is often understood to be the Lutheran position by both Lutherans and non-Lutherans alike. But is this claim correct? A brief survey of non-Lutheran material shows that many indeed assume that the Lutheran teaching is, in fact, consubstantiation. Moreover, even Lutherans themselves will sometimes claim this doctrine as their own. However, other Lutherans confess differently, and not least of all, Dr. Luther and the reformers themselves. To attempt to clarify the matter, I will briefly try to distinguish between what consubstantiation is from what it isn’t using various sources. In doing so, I will show that not all who use the term (even Lutherans) are always consistent. Because of this inconsistency, misrepresentation abounds and confusion remains. Following this brief survey, I will speak about the importance of such distinctions and the significance of the Lutheran doctrine and her confession.
Right meaning, wrong word
In his Charts of Christian Theology and Doctrine, H. Wayne House clearly characterizes the Lutheran position as that of consubstantiation. He indicates that Luther was the “founder” of this position, and that the major documents from which this teaching is derived are the Augsburg Confession and Luther’s Smaller Catechism. Interestingly, though, House correctly notes that, concerning the presence of Christ in the Lord’s Supper, “The elements do not change into the presence of Christ,” (as in the Roman Catholic teaching) “but he is actually present in, with, and under the elements” (of bread and wine).
Part of this latter “formula” does come directly from Luther’s Small Catechism, where Luther answers the question “What is the Sacrament of the Altar?” with the words, “It is the true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ under the bread and wine, instituted by Christ Himself for us Christians to eat and to drink.” House is correct in attributing the teaching of Christ’s (“Real”) presence to the Lutheran position. However, according to others, such a position is not what consubstantiation is.
Rose Publishing, Inc., like House in his Charts of Christian Theology and Doctrine, also misrepresents the Lutheran teaching by claiming that it is consubstantiation. Here is how Rose Publishing describes the teaching of the Lutheran Church, “The Lord’s Supper remains truly bread and wine but also become truly Jesus’ body and blood.” Rose Publishing calls this teaching consubstantiation.
Thus far, both House and Rose Publishing correctly define the Lutheran position on the Lord’s Supper, but they do so by calling that position consubstantiation. Likewise, on the back cover of the book, Understanding Four Views on The Lord’s Supper, the Lutheran view is understood to be the same.
For anyone interested in correctly understanding the Lord’s Supper and it’s accompanying terminology, its easy to see how, just from the few examples above, confusion might exist, even among Lutherans. The term used to describe the teaching of the Lutherans (i.e. consubstantiation) and the actual teaching of the Lutherans are not identical.
Consubstantiation and the actual teaching of the Lutheran Church
According to Dr. Scaer, consubstantiation “etymologically means ‘one substance by the side of another.’” Lutherans do not teach a “side by side” locale of bread and wine and Christ’s body and blood. Rather, Lutherans teach what is called the “sacramental union,” which is the “Union of bread and body, wine and blood in the Sacrament of the Altar.” The elements of the Lord’s Table are not side by side. Instead, Lutherans believe that the recipients of the Lord’s Supper truly receive Christ’s body and Christ’s blood. Recipients also eat and drink bread and wine. This includes not only those who believe that they receive Christ’s body and blood “in, with, and under” the bread and the wine, but also those who don’t believe it (See 1 Corinthians 11:27, 29).
Lenker defines consubstantiation this way, “View, falsely charged to Lutheranism, that bread and body form 1 substance (a ‘3rd substance) in Communion (similarly wine and blood) or that body and blood are present, like bread and wine, in a natural manner.”
Lutherans do not confess that a “3rd substance” exists. Nowhere does Christ Himself say this in the institution of this sacred meal (Matthew 26:26-28; 1 Corinthians 11:23-25). Lutherans do confess, however, that in the Lord’s Supper, bread and wine and Christ’s body and blood are received. Neither do Lutherans teach that Christ’s body and blood are present in a “natural manner,” but in a supernatural one, according to Christ’s Word and promise. Yet, Lutherans neither mis-spiritualize the sacrament or claim that bread and the wine only symbolize and represent Christ’s body and blood (both teachings are not according to the very words of Christ, to which we are bound). Lutherans simply teach that Christ is present in the Lord’s Supper according to His Word, “Real Presence,” that He gives His own body and blood for us to eat and to drink, that we eat bread and drink wine as He instituted, and that by this means of grace (of the Lord’s Supper), Christ forgives sins and gives eternal life, “for where there is forgiveness of sins, there is also eternal life.”
Formula of Concord, Epitome, VII, “The Holy Supper of Christ”: 15 6. We believe, teach, and confess that with the bread and wine the body and blood of Christ are received not only spiritually, by faith, but also orally — however, not in a Capernaitic manner, but because of the sacramental union in a supernatural and heavenly manner. The words of Christ teach this clearly when they direct us to take, eat, and drink, all of which took place in the case of the apostles, since it is written, “And they all drank of it” (Mark 14:23). Likewise, St. Paul says, “The bread which we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ?” (1 Cor. 10:16) — that is, whoever eats this bread eats the body of Christ. This has also been the unanimous teaching of the leading Church Fathers, such as Chrysostom, Cyprian, Leo I, Gregory, Ambrose, Augustine.
Why the big deal?
Such distinctions may sound confusing, and not least of all due to the confusion that already exists with many a teaching from one church body or denomination to another. If we all used the same words in the same way, and correctly attributed this and that word with the identical meaning, things would be different. But regrettably, we do not. Misrepresentations abound, as do assumptions and presuppositions, which may or may not be accurate. People often speak past each other for these very reasons. It is no different in the church. Yet in the church, one shift in meaning or usage of a word and its meaning can do a great deal of damage (1 Corinthians 5:6; Galatians 5:9). And if the right teaching is just a bit altered, salvation can be lost.
The teaching of consubstantiation is a term that is often used, but more greatly misunderstood and misapplied. NonLutherans attribute Lutherans as holding this teaching. Yet, Lutherans themselves, for the most part, do not claim this teaching as their own, at least as I am aware. Either way, it is important to try to understand how a word is used and its meaning. Especially when it comes to the Lord’s Word, which alone gives the true doctrine, is this necessary. To not do so is not only not careful, it is not “rightly handing the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15). Instead, it is adding to or subtracting from what the Lord has given (Deuteronomy 4:2; Proverbs 30:6).
 H. Wayne House, Charts of Christian Theology and Doctrine (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992), 124-125.
 Ibid.,, 125.
 Rose Books of Bible Charts, Maps & Time Lines, “Denominations Comparison” (Torrance, CA: Rose Publishing, Inc., 2005), 173.
 John H. Armstrong (gen. ed.), Understanding Four Views on the Lord’s Supper (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan , 2007).
 Ibid., 87.
 Erwin L. Lenker, Lutheran Cyclopedia (St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House, 1975, rev.), 691.
 Ibid., 198.
 Theodore G. Tappert, The Book of Concord : The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 2000, c1959.
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