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St. Paul & ethics

In the Pocket Dictionary of Ethics, Grenz & Smith write, “Paul sought to understand the significance of Jesus’ entire life, ministry, death, resurrection and exaltation for ethical living.  He also attempted to apply Jesus’ teachings to the situations faced by the early churches under his care” [1]

These words seem to imply that Paul the apostle had not fully understood the significance of Jesus’ life for ethical living.  In addition, these words suggest that Paul may have been deficient in applying Jesus’ words to the matters of his day.  However, the very words of Paul in his letters[2] demonstrate otherwise.

Take for example Paul’s words as recorded in Romans 12, where he writes, “For I say, through the grace given to me, to everyone who is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think soberly, as God has dealt to each one a measure of faith” (v3), or these, “Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil. Cling to what is good. 10 Be kindly affectionate to one another with brotherly love, in honor giving preference to one another; not lagging in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord; rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing steadfastly in prayer; distributing to the needs of the saints, given to hospitality.  Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse.  Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep.  Be of the same mind toward one another. Do not set your mind on high things, but associate with the humble. Do not be wise in your own opinion.  Repay no one evil for evil. Have regard for good things in the sight of all men.  If it is possible, as much as depends on you, live peaceably with all men” (v9-18).

Specifically, these words of St. Paul the Apostle, inspired by God to write what he wrote, indicate not a seeking to understand, but certainty, in applying Jesus’ words to how God’s people are to live.  St. Paul knew and understood what he was writing about, not, however, due to experience, but due to the revelation of Christ (i.e. 1 Corinthians 14:6; Galatians 1:12ff; 2:2; Ephesians 3:3).

St. Paul the apostle was not seeking to understand how to live.  He sought to preach Christ and Him crucified (1 Corinthians 1:23; 2:2).  He sought to the please God who had sent Him.  Ethically speaking, Paul knew how he was to live and how others were to live.  He knew and believed what God had revealed to Him.  The issue was not in Paul’s understanding, it was in actually doing what God said.

Read Romans 7:7-25, for example.  Here, Paul speaks of the struggle between his sinful flesh and the spirit.  His problem was not that he did not “know” how to apply the teaching of Christ.  He certainly did.  Rather, his problem concerned the battle of the flesh and spirit, not only within himself, but also within everyone who has believed in God and His promises since the Fall of Adam and Eve, even into our day, even to the end of this world (see Galatians 5:16-26).

Instead of seeking to understand Christ’s teaching for everyday living as God’s people, Paul sought to preach and teach the truth of God’s Word.  In doing so, Paul actually did apply Jesus’ teaching to the everyday situations of the church in his day.  He did not merely attempt to declare God’s law and judgment upon sin, and to preach the forgiveness of sins.  He did proclaim these very truths, as God Himself had given him to do.  Had the hearers of his preaching and teaching not believed or acted according to the words of Paul, this would not have been due to what Paul had said, but to the hardened hearts of those who heard him speak.

Grenz and Smith’s use of the word “attempt” is unfortunate, for it leads the reader to assume that Paul failed to faithfully apply God’s Word.  But look at the letters of Paul, and you will find something quite different.


[1] Stanley J. Grenz & Jay T. Smith, Pocket Dictionary of Ethic (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press), 2003.

[2] Romans, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 & 2 Thessalonians, 1 & Timothy, Titus, Philemon.

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Why so many Christian Denominations?

Blankman, Drew & Todd Augustine.  Pocket Dictionary of North American Denominations.  Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004.

The preface of this introductory booklet of denominations in North America (which includes such nonChristian groups as Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormons) states, “There are thousands of denominations in North America” (7).  This is not difficult to imagine, as within most of the mainline denominations, a number of subgroups exist.  Apart from Roman Catholicism, it would appear, the various church bodies subsist under various names and designations.  However, even Roman Catholicism, for its claim to unity, is vastly divided and far from united.

One might wonder why all these categorizations (denominations) exist.  The reality of Christendom today seems to be that of fragmentation, not unity in the confession of the same faith.  The “one Lord, one faith, one baptism” and “one body” of Ephesians 4:4,5 appears nonexistent.

The ecumenical movement strives for the visual demonstration of a united Christendom, albeit in a quite deficient way.  Agreeing to disagree does not work in the realm of God’s revelation in Christ.  Nor does emphasizing only the areas of agreement among Christians offer the solution for uniting the differing church bodies under one umbrella.

The answer to bring about true unity in Christendom is not to minimize the differences and to maximize the agreements.  Neither is the answer to focus only on what might be determined to be the essentials and then allow considerable freedom on “other” teachings deemed by some to be nonessential, even though God has spoken about these very things, too (i.e. the ordination of women, the acceptance of homosexuality, redefining sin, etc.).

The answer for today’s fragmented Christendom is to turn from its departure of Holy Scripture and the doctrine of Jesus Christ to it, and to continually pray and strive for genuine unity—not the sham unity of a false and deceiving ecumenicalism, but the true unity of faith which demonstrates itself in same-saying—that is—confessing together as one—the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ as revealed in Holy Scripture.

Here, however, is right where the problem lies…Not all do or will confess the same thing concerning Christ and concerning the doctrine revealed in the Holy Bible.  This is really the reason why so many different denominations exist today—because not all say (teach) the same thing.

What is the Bible?  Who is Jesus?  Who has the hope of eternal life?  What are the Sacraments?  These are questions that call for answers, and for which various answers will be given.  The fault, however, is not to be found in the Holy Bible.  The fault is to be found in those who disbelieve it and use it contrary to God’s will, which we only know from Holy Scripture itself.

As God says through the prophet Jeremiah, “He who has My word, let him speak My word faithfully” (Jeremiah 23:28).

And also, as Jesus Himself says, “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word (John 14:23).

So why do all the various denominations exist?  Because they do not all teach the same doctrine.  And because they do not all believe, teach, and confess the same doctrine, they do not consistently all believe, teach, and confess the same Christ.

St. Paul writes, “A little leaven leavens the whole lump” (1 Corinthians 5:6; Galatians 5:9).  Even a little departure from the Word of God can (and has) led to apostasy from the true and saving faith.

Though one may continue to believe in Jesus for salvation from sin and death, such faith is quite weakened (and weakening) should one also continue to believe in even theistic evolution or deny the miraculous accounts of Jonah, Jesus feeding the 5000, etc.  Really, it is inconsistent to say that one believes in Jesus and His Word and yet to deny the very Word given by our Lord.

Believing in Jesus Christ and denying Holy Scripture is inconsistent for the Christian and for Christianity, for one who truly does believe in Jesus Christ will also hold His Word to be true.

How can one rightly believe in Jesus Christ if that one continues to deny that very Word which testifies of Christ?  Here we are not only talking about the Words themselves, but also about the meaning of the Words—not the meaning which we place on them—but the meaning which God attaches to them, Scripture interpreting Scripture.

By God’s grace, and only by God’s grace through faith in Jesus Christ, does anyone have the hope of eternal life.  This means that eternal life is the gift of God and not the work of man (Ephesians 2:8-9).

It is faith in Christ alone that saves.  This is true (John 3:16-18).  And one is saved only as one remains in this true faith.  For this reason is it necessary to continue in the Word of God—that one remain in such faith and thus be made more sure of God’s grace in Christ.

Any other doctrine than God’s will only lead away from and not to, Christ and eternal life.

For this reason, St. Paul writes, “Take heed to yourself and to the doctrine. Continue in them, for in doing this you will save both yourself and those who hear you” (1 Timothy 4:16).

Book Review-Pocket Dictionary of Church History (2008)

 

Feldmeth, Nathan P.   Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms.

Downers Grove, IL:  Intervarsity Press, 2008.

“The Pocket Dictionary of Church History is designed to help students identify the people, places, events, movements and ideas that checker the story of the church through the ages” (back cover).   Such a design this booklet does meet.  About a paragraph is given for each of these identifications, with some shorter and some longer.  By no means intended to be exhaustive, this booklet might serve well as an introduction or quick reference to Church History, and may promote an increased desire to study further the history of the Christian Church.

Book Review-Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms (1999)

 

 

 

Grenz, Stanley, David Guretzki, and Cherith Fee Nordling. Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms.  Downers Grove, IL:  Intervarsity Press,  1999.

“This Pocket Dictionary attempts to provide a basic understanding of the three hundred or so significant words and concepts you are most likely to encounter in the theological books and articles you are reading” (p5).   This work has met this attempt.  It is a very “basic understanding” of various words encountered in various theological works or shorter or longer kind.  Though by no means exhaustive, either in the number of terms defined or in the definitions themselves, this work can be helpful to those who wish to have a general meaning of this or that term.

As a Pocket Dictionary, this brief work is an introduction to theological terms and their meanings.  For more in-depth study, it is quite necessary to research further.  It can indeed be profitable as a prelude to continued reading, but its usefulness is limited.  On the back cover, the claim is made that the Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms “is the perfect companion to your theological studies.”     Though I would not say of that it is “the perfect companion,” I would say that it is “helpful.”

The books “broadly evangelical, Protestant perspective is clearly evident” and I would say more than from “time to time” (p5).  Such a perspective doesn’t diminish at all its value, but it does suggest reading with a critical eye.

I found this Pocket Dictionary to be a quite accessible reminder of the numerous words used in the area of theology and philosophy and to what they referred, albeit in a very cursory manner.  The writer’s intention was not to offer an exhaustive tome of theological vocabulary, and this is why I found it beneficial.  Its brevity I also found appealing.

Having read it, I seek further engagement with theological works and clearer understanding of the same.  The book has flamed the spark to continue the study of theology and Holy Scripture in answer to life’s most fundamental and crucial questions.

 ———————————————————————————

 On a concluding note, Intervarsity Press offers a few other works with the prefatory title, Pocket Dictionary of…, including Church History, Denominationalism, and Biblical Studies.  In a similar format, these works also serve as “companions” for their respective areas.

 

 

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